Authentication of writings: if relevance of writing depends on source or authorship, must authenticate it; absent stipulation, must lay foundation
1. Personal knowledge of witness: witness observed X sign it
2. Proof of handwriting: lay witness may testify on basis of familiarity with X’s writing formed prior to trial; expert may testify an basis of comparison with handwriting exemplar; jury may compare with a handwriting exemplar
3. Ancient document rule: authenticity may be inferred if doc is more than 20 years old, is facially free of suspicion, and was found in place of natural custody
4. Solicited reply doctrine: doc can be authenticated by evidence that it was received in response to a prior communication to alleged author
5. Self-authenticating documents: official publications; certified copies of public records on file in public office; newspapers and periodicals; trade inscriptions and labels; acknowledged documents; commercial paper
6. Authentication of photographs: as demonstrative evidence, witness  testifies on basis of personal knowledge that photo is “fair and accurate representation” of things portrayed; as silent witness, must lay foundation of testimony as to installation and working order of camera, removal of film and developing, and chain of custody for all persons who possessed