A.Factors for Forseeability – Dillon’s Test (California)
1.P needs to be at or near the scene of the accident
2.Contemporaneous Sensory Observation
3.Close familial relationship
B.Tobin v. Grossman (majority rule)
1.Zone of Danger is expanded “must be in target zone”
2.P does not have to testify that he/she feared personal safety
3.Does not designate familial relationship
C.Molien (syphilis case – broke up marriage)
1.Where a duty runs directly to P, a direct victim can recover for emotional distress without being exposed to direct physical harm or witnessing physical injury to close personal relations