Dissent (Douglas): Young allows injunctive relief. Just b/c it affects the treasury is not a good enough reason. Other cases (Rosado v. Wyman – welfare) affect the state funds. Whether it is prospective or retrospective, it is the same in actions of equity & nothing in the 11th Am. differentiates b/w it and law. A state can have half-immunity. Where a state has consented to Fed-state co-operative project, it is realistic to conclude that the State has agreed to assume its obligations under the legislation.  (Brennan): 1)disagrees w/ Hans interpretation, therefore, the IL citizens can sue IL. 2) IL cannot assert ancient doctrine of sov. immunity b/c they waived it upon entering the Convention, therefore no protection for Fed issues.