Facts: court considered challenges to the 1970 Voting Righs Act in which Congress attempted to lower the voting age from 21 to 18 in Fed and state election, to extend its prohibition of literacy tests to all state and Fed elections for 5 yrs, and to eliminate state residency requirements in presidential elections.
Holding: court was fractured on the question of age requirements, but the court unanimously upheld the literacy test prohibition as a proper means of implementing the 15th Amend under – 2. Brennan- emphasized Congress’ superior fact-finding capability, as compared with the state’s led the Court to defer to Fed policy choices over state choices; similarly, the Court would bow to the choices of Congress instead of the Court’s in light of Congress’ capacity for fact-finding.