Runyon v. McCrary(1976)- in another provision of the 1866 Act, Congress could prohibit racial discrimination in the making and enforcing of contracts, thereby constitutionally reaching purely private acts.
o    Prior to enactment of the Voting Rights Acts of 1965- racially discriminating voting practices could only be identified and removed on a case by case basis, at great cost and with little impact. In 1965 Act, Congress sought to promote systematic change by prohibiting certain qualifications and requirements for voting.