Discussion: the “substantive provisions” in the amendments are directed specifically at the states. It commands that it is their duty to insure that private citizens are not discriminated against. To assure that the states adhere to the provisions congress created – 5 to give them the power to enact any necessary legislation needed to enforce the amendments.
States must follow the law of the land, the Constitution if they refuses to due so their consent to being sued. Enforcement of the amendments are do not invade state immunity because the amendments are the supreme law, the Constitution, and so states must adhere to them.