Piercing the Veil
a.  K cases (follow statute)
i.  to show alter ego, sham to perp. fraud, or similar theory (enterprise liability, denuding, trust fund doctrine), must show actual fraud (by officers/SH that was committed primarily for personal benefit of perpetrators)
ii. failure to follow corp. formalities is not a piercing factor
b.  Tort cases (follow Castleberry, but corp. formalities not factor!)
can pierce based on the following factors:
A) sham to perp. a fraud:  constructive fraud breach of legal/equitable duty b/c of its tendency to deceive
B) alter ego (mere bsns conduit)
C) evading existing legal obligation
D) achieve monopoly
E) circumvent a statute
F) relied upon as protection of criminality or to justify a wrong
G) inadequate capitalization
H) enterprise liability (you can get assets of parent/sister corp)
I) common employees & offices & bsns name
J) central accounting; pymt. of wages by one corp to other corp’s employees
K) services rendered by employee of one corp to other corp
L) undocumented transfer of funds between corps.
M) unclear allocation of profits (losses) btwn corps.
Alter Ego:   K case    Tort case
  lack of separateness  lack of separateness
  injustice    injustice
  actual fraud    –
               1. intentional misrep
               2. of a material fact
               3. made to induce reliance
               4. relied upon